Trends come and go – and sometimes they come back – I have on good authority (my 15-year-old daughter) that Lululemon fanny packs are making a big comeback and are all the rage these days. 

Social Identification Theory is a psychological framework developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s.  Social Identification Theory posits that an individual’s sense of self is significantly shaped by their membership in social groups, whether based on nationality, religion, political affiliations, or social class. This identification influences their behavior, attitudes, and how they perceive others. Over the decades, this theory has evolved, encompassing not just overt group memberships but also subtler, psychologically internalized social categories. Social media exponentially magnifies this concept. Our smartphones create social groups that simply could not exist before. If I had a dollar for every person who sent me a TikTok, YouTube short, or Instagram story about how to build passive income and legally never pay taxes, I would be writing from a yacht in the south of France! 

Let’s explore how the wisdom of crowds can lead to foolish-looking portfolios and ways to protect your investments from falling victim to the viral investment du jour of the week. 

Social Identification Theory and Investing

Social Identification Theory suggests that individuals often conform to the norms and behaviors of groups they identify with. In investment contexts, this can lead to herd behavior, where investors decide based on what others in their group are doing rather than independent analysis.

Here are some examples of Group-Influenced events that rattled financial markets over the past 30 years and left a trail of financial destruction for investors:

  • Dot-Com Bubble (Late 1990s – Early 2000s)
    • During the dot-com bubble, there was a widespread belief that internet companies would continue to grow exponentially. This belief and the fear of missing out (FOMO), led to inflated valuations of tech companies, many of which had no profit. The bubble burst when it became clear that these valuations were not based on sound financials, leading to significant losses for those who followed the crowd without critical analysis.
  • Real Estate Bubble and the 2008 Financial Crisis
    • The real estate bubble that contributed to the 2008 financial crisis is another example. Many investors, influenced by the prevailing group sentiment that real estate prices would always rise, continued to invest in properties and subprime mortgages. This trend was also bolstered by social norms that equated property ownership with success. When the bubble burst, it led to a massive global financial crisis. 
  • Cryptocurrency Frenzy
    • The rise of cryptocurrencies, particularly Bitcoin, saw a significant influence of social identification. Groups formed around the belief in the transformative potential of cryptocurrencies. Many investors, influenced by stories of spectacular gains and a shared vision of a decentralized financial future, poured money into cryptocurrencies without fully understanding the risks or the underlying technology.
  • GameStop Stock Surge (2021)
    • The GameStop stock surge, driven by users on the Reddit forum r/WallStreetBets, is a recent example of social identification impacting investment decisions. A collective identity formed among small investors around opposing large hedge funds that had shorted GameStop stock. Many bought the stock as part of a coordinated effort to create a short squeeze, driving up the price. This movement was as much about social identity and collective action as it was about financial gain.

Taking a Contrarian approach

Being a contrarian in investing involves going against prevailing market trends or popular opinion, often based on deep fundamental analysis. This approach can be particularly effective but challenging, as it frequently runs counter to human psychology and the influence of Social Identification Theory. Here’s an exploration of the importance of contrarian investing, including real-world examples and how investors can adopt this mindset to counteract the pitfalls of Social Identification Theory.

The Importance of Contrarian Investing

  • Spotting Overvalued and Undervalued Assets
  • Contrarian investors aim to identify assets that are undervalued by the market but have strong fundamentals or to avoid assets that are overvalued and in a bubble. By doing so, they often enter positions that are unpopular at the time but have the potential for significant returns.
  • Avoiding Herd Mentality
  • This approach helps investors avoid the herd mentality that can lead to bubbles and subsequent crashes. By critically analyzing market trends and investor behavior, contrarians can sidestep the pitfalls of mass investor psychology.

Examples of Successful Contrarian Investing

  • Warren Buffett’s Investment in American Express (1964)
  • After a major scandal in 1963, American Express shares plummeted. While most investors shunned the company, Warren Buffett recognized its strong customer loyalty and brand value. He invested heavily, and the company eventually recovered, yielding significant returns for Buffett.
  • John Paulson’s Bet Against the Housing Market (2007)
  • Before the 2008 financial crisis, investor John Paulson identified the housing market bubble, where most investors were heavily bullish on real estate. He took a contrarian position by short-selling subprime mortgages, leading to a profit of about $4 billion when the market collapsed.

Contrarian Investing vs. Social Identification Theory

Social Identification Theory explains how individuals align their behaviors and beliefs with their perceived social groups. In investing, this often manifests as following popular trends or the investment choices of peers. Contrarian investing directly opposes this by:

  • Encouraging Independent Analysis: Contrarians rely on their research and analysis rather than group consensus.
  • Resisting Peer Pressure: They resist the psychological pressure to conform to popular market sentiments.
  • Focusing on Long-Term Value: Contrarian investors often look beyond short-term market movements and focus on long-term fundamentals.

Strategies for Maintaining a Contrarian Outlook

  • Thorough Research and Analysis: Investors should base their decisions on detailed analysis of market fundamentals, not just on opposing popular opinion.
  • Emotional Discipline: Being comfortable with going against the crowd requires a high degree of emotional discipline and tolerance for potential short-term underperformance.
  • Diversification: While being contrarian, it’s also essential to diversify investments to manage risk effectively.
  • Regular Portfolio Review: Regularly reviewing and adjusting the portfolio can help investors stay aligned with their contrarian insights and adjust as market conditions change. 
  • Staying Informed: Keeping abreast of market trends while not being swayed by them allows contrarian investors to spot opportunities where the market’s perception deviates from reality.


Contrarian investing is crucial for those looking to capitalize on market inefficiencies and avoid the pitfalls of herd mentality. While it runs counter to Social Identification Theory, it requires discipline, thorough analysis, and emotional fortitude. By maintaining a contrarian outlook, investors can potentially achieve outsized returns while mitigating the risks associated with following the crowd. This approach is not without its challenges, but for those who can effectively apply it, contrarian investing offers a path to potentially superior investment outcomes.


The information contained herein is intended to be used for educational purposes only and is not exhaustive. Diversification and/or any strategy that may be discussed does not guarantee against investment losses but are intended to help manage risk and return. If applicable, historical discussions and/or opinions are not predictive of future events. The content is presented in good faith and has been drawn from sources believed to be reliable. The content is not intended to be legal, tax or financial advice. Please consult a legal, tax or financial professional for information specific to your individual situation.

This content not reviewed by FINRA

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